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Download Film Trial Run Indowebster 11




tative historiography on antisemitism, and how particular representations of antisemitism in the 19th and 20th centuries, combined with the rapid development of mass media in that period, have led to current antisemitic fables. While some of these examples of contemporaneous historiography of antisemitism have been discredited, they nonetheless demonstrate how the role of historiography in the construction of current-day antisemitism has not yet been adequately researched. Antisemitism has been defined as a ‘rationalized belief in the world is evil, Jews are the evil’ (Zuckerman, 1991: 11). As such, antisemitism is the product of a culture, or rather a collection of culture, and not a movement or an ideology. Antisemitism requires a certain set of mentalities and ideas, and is not a move- ment in its own right. It was defined by Rudolf Kjellén as ‘the complex of prejudices, motives, feelings, and actions directed against the Jews and based on the false belief that the Jews are guilty of the deeds attributed to them’ (Carmichael, 1999: 39). Thus, contemporary antisemitism is not about Jews, per se, but about how Jews have been represented in history. As such, there are two interrelated forms of contemporary antisemitism: anti-Jewish bias, the denial of Jewish peoplehood, and anti-Jewish prejudice, the racist stereotype of Jews. The development of historiography The transition from text to oral history, and finally to the recording of events in written form, was a process of transformation for our understanding of the past. The development of historiography fundamentally altered our relationship to the past, and thus to ourselves. Historiography is about ourselves; it is not simply about the past. The representations of the past are those ‘that act upon us … at the same time that we act upon the past’ (Stimson, 1996: 51). As Stimson notes, ‘we project ourselves upon the past, and then are the past’ (Stimson, 1996: 49). In this sense, all history is representation, and all historiography is a form of contemporary imagination. The recording of oral history was a form of writing, albeit on the body of the living. Written records both reflected and shaped the oral culture and perspectives of the past. Thus, written historiography was,



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